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Common Grammar & Style Mistakes
Ibid vs. Idem
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Ibid vs. Idem
, “in the same place”) usually refers to a single work cited in the note immediately preceding. It must never be used if the preceding note contains more than one citation. It takes the place of the name(s) of the author(s) or editor(s), the title of the work, and as much of the succeeding material as is identical. If the entire reference, including page numbers or other particulars, is identical, the word
alone is used (as in note 7 below). The word
(italicized in this paragraph only because it is a word used as a word
) is capitalized at the beginning of a note and followed by a period. To avoid a succession of
notes, the content of notes 6–8, 10, and 11 below might instead be placed parenthetically in the text in place of the note references (see
Humor of the Midwest
6. Ibid., 258–59.
8. Ibid., 333–34.
Diaries and Correspondence
10. Ibid., 2:35–36.
11. Ibid., 2:37–40.
may also be used within one note in successive references to the same work.
8. Morris Birkbeck, “The Illinois Prairies and Settlers,” in
Prairie State: Impressions of Illinois, 1673–1967, by Travelers and Other Observers
, ed. Paul M. Angle (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 62. “The soil of the Big-prairie, which is of no great extent notwithstanding its name, is a rich, cool sand; that is to say, one of the most desirable description” (ibid., 63).
When several works by the same person are cited successively in the same note,
(“the same,” sometimes abbreviated to
), has sometimes been used in place of the author’s name. Except in legal references, where the abbreviation
is used in place of
, the term is rarely used nowadays. Chicago discourages the use of
, recommending instead that the author’s last name be repeated.
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